1.) Describe the main principles of just-war theory
Main restrictions during a Just War include; can’t rob peasants/churches/unarmed citizens, women and children should be left alone as well as the non participants of the army, merchants and their goods protected, they’re to not burn houses. If these rules were disobeyed they were to be excommunicated immediately.
Before deciding to go on a war people must keep in mind that the intentions of going on a war are for the right reasons, that way they are able to avoid evil. Their goal is to simply set things straight with the other nation without causing much harm or to do it in the most mild way possible. They do it by making these restrictions that I explained above.
2.) In what fundamental way did Duns Scotus and William of Ockham challenge the position of Thomas Aquinas?
Both of them didn’t believe in a reason for God’s existence. Instead, they believed that faith is more than enough to understanding God on a deeper level. Thomas Aquinas believed that reason/faith complement each other. Both of them work nicely together. Reason can be used as an explanation to things and faith will make the understandment more clear.