1. How would you describe the condition of the Catholic Church on the eve of the Protestant Reformation?
There was a lot of absenteeism going on. For example, the bishops were interested in everything except their duties. Bishops who didn’t reside in their dioceses resulted an example of absenteeism. Priests repeatedly being told to celebrate mass at least 4 times a year. There were no seminaries which also resulted in an absenteeism.
2. What were the Ninety-Five Theses about? What was the basic message of Luther’s complaint?
The 95 theses challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. His basic message is the 2 central beliefs—that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deeds—and that was to spark the Protestant Reformation.