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Western Civ 2 Lesson 55: Answering 3 topic questions for this essay

1.) Explain the views of the French materialists

Although there are important differences between them, all of them were materialists who believed that the world was made up of a single substance, matter, the motions and properties of which could be used to explain all phenomena.

2.) What does Adam Smith mean by the “invisible hand”?

Invisible hand is a metaphor introduced by the 18th-century Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith, that characterizes the mechanisms through which beneficial social and economic outcomes may arise from the accumulated self-interested actions of individuals, none of whom intends to bring about such outcomes.

3.) Discuss the causes and consequences of the War of the Austrian Succession

The cause of war started when the death in 1740 of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and ruler of the Austrian Habsburg monarchy. His eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, assumed the throne but her succession was challenged by France, Prussia, Bavaria and Spain.

The consequences of the war was that the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war but settled nothing. Britain returned Louisbourg to France in exchange for Madras, India, which French forces had captured during the war. The Netherlands were ceded to Austria, and Silesia to Prussia.

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