1.) What arguments does Gladstone make in favor of Home Rule for Ireland?
Gladstone wanted the Irish to gain some degrees of independence from Britain and wanted Ireland to gain greater local political independence, but still be subject to British imperial unity. Gladstone recommend that England loosen its grip on Irish politics, in order to preserve a good political relationship with ireland. His main argument was giving Ireland some freedom would appease the Irish and keep them from separating from Britain.
2.) What was the Kulturkampf?
It was the struggle between the German government and the Catholic church. Otto von Bismarck saw the Catholic church as a foreign entity, so he wanted to have more influence than the church. He constricted Catholic churches by controlling seminaries and Catholic schools. After the Catholic church’s political gains, Bismarck decided it would be better to reconcile with the Catholics, rather than continue failing at oppressing them.