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Western Civ 2 Lesson 25: Answering 3 of the following topic questions for this essay

1. What was the key issue that led to the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War? What religious accommodation was reached by Catholics and Protestants in the Peace of Westphalia?

The main cause of the Thirty Years’ War in the 16th century was religious intolerance. When Ferdinand, pro-Catholic king of Bohemia who was also elected Holy Roman Emperor, enforced limitations on Protestant privileges, the people were discontent. Bohemia deposed Ferdinand II from the throne and replaced him with Frederick V, a Protestant. Now Frederick committed the mistake of launching a campaign against Catholics. This created strong tension between the two opposing religious groups and lead to the outbreak of war between the Holy Roman Empire and Dutch territories

2. What was the English Civil War all about?

Two prominent reasons provoked the English Civil War. Number one, the fact that Charles I of England ruled in an outward absolutist fashion worried and angered members of Parliament. Second, the Protestants of England, especially the Puritans, grew concerned that Charles would revive Catholicism in the country again.

3. Who were the Levellers, and what did they believe?

The Levellers were a political party that pioneered libertarian ideas, the most prominent being that each person owns his own body. Therefore, other principles that the Levellers strongly supported was the right to own private property, religious toleration, and freedom of contract and trade.

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