1.) What are the values of Modernism that we see reflected across different fields, and how do they represent a departure from neoclassicism and the Enlightenment?
In contrast with Neoclassicism; order, reason, convention, and optimism about human nature isn’t even remotely close with the ideas of modernism, therefore isn’t in contrast with Neoclassicism. People referred Modernism in those days with Neoclassicism and Enlightenment the same things, but if you look at some of my older articles describing each ‘cism’ in detail, then you would agree with me that modernism isn’t the same.
2.) What factors contributed to the coming of World War I?
Pan-Slavism: Serbs, Bosnians, Croats, and Slovenes, under the influence of nationalism begin to share common identity. Russians conceive themselves as protectors of the Slavic community.
When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got involved to defend it. Germany, seeing that Russia in on the action, declared war on Russia. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France by marching through Belgium pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war to support its British allies. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the Allies (Britain, France, Russia, etc.).
So basically, one little incident after another, eventually got other countries to get involved, creating a big mess that we all know by the name World War 1.